A bill of material (BOM) describes the different components that together create a product. A BOM for a bicycle, for example, consists of all the parts that make up the bicycle: the frame, the saddle, wheels, and so on.
When you enter the material number of a bill of materials that is relevant for sales order processing, the system displays the material that describes the whole bill of materials as a main item. The individual components are displayed as lower-level items.
There are two ways to process a bill of materials in Sales. Once you have entered a bill of material in a sales order, the system runs pricing, inventory control, and delivery processing at:
- Main item level if the material is assembled, or
- Component level if the material is not assembled
The type of processing used by the system is determined by the item category group that you enter in the material master record for relevant materials.
Processing at Main Item Level
If you want the system to carry out pricing, inventory control, and delivery processing at main item level, enter ERLA in the Item category group field of the Sales: sales org. 2 screen in the material master record of the finished product. This means that the components only function as text items and are not relevant for delivery. The following graphic shows how a bill of material is processed at main item level.
Processing at Component Level
If you want the system to carry out pricing, inventory control, and delivery processing at the component level, enter LUMF in the Item category group field of the Sales: sales org. 2 screen in the material master record of the finished product. In this case, only the components are relevant for delivery. During processing the system automatically creates a delivery group. The latest delivery date among all the components becomes the delivery date for the entire delivery group.
What Is BOM Referring to SAP SD
BILL OF MATERIALS
We need to maintain Material master records for the BOM Item and for the components also.
The item category group of the BOM items is ‘ERLA/LUMF’ and the item category is ‘NORM’.
Creating BOM item:
- Sales and distribution
- Master data
- Bills of material
- Material BOM
Specify the data for the following fields.
Material: Specify the material for which components are to be maintained.
Plant: Specify the plant of BOM item.
BOM usage: Specify the application in which BOM is maintained (5 for SD).
Alternative BOM: Specifies the sequence of a BOM within a group of BOMs.
(L = stock item N = Non-stock item)
In the overview screen specify the components which makes the main item and the corresponding quantities and save it.
Note: During sales document processing if we enter the BOM item the system automatically determines corresponding components.
1) For the BOM to be exploded in the sales document the following customizing setting is required.
A) If the item category group is ERLA the item category of the BOM is TAQ, in the definition of which we have to specify the value A (Explode single level BOM) in the structure scope.
B) If the item category group is LUMF the item category of the BOM item is TAP in the definition of which we have to specify the value A in the field structure scope.
2) If the item category group is LUMF the system shows price for the components but not for the BOM item. For this the following customizing setting is required.
A) The item category of the BOM item is TAP which is not relevant for pricing, so the BOM item is not Priced.
B) The item category of the components is TAN which is relevant for pricing, so the components are priced
3) If the item category group is ERLA the system shows price for the BOM item but not for components. For this following customizing setting is required.
A) The item category of BOM item is TAQ, which is relevant for pricing, so the BOM is priced.
B) The item category of components is TAE which is not relevant for pricing, so the components are not priced.
While creating sales document to get the list of alternative BOMs in the definition item category of BOM item we have to check the field “Manual Alternative”
ITEM CATEGORY DETERMINATION FOR BOM ITEM
SD type ITCaGr Usg HLItCa DftItCa
OR ERLA TAQ
OR NORM TAQ TAE
OR LUMF TAP
OR NORM TAP TAN
OR NORM TAN
OR NORM TAE TAE
OR NORM TAN TAE
NOTE: A – Explode single level BOM item
B – Explode multi level BOM item
CS01 – Transaction code for creating BOM Item
Statistical value ‘x’ or ‘y’
Make TAP relevant for pricing but values for statistical only.
Pricing Customization For Sales BOM
What are the steps of customization to pricing for header level or item level then?
You can create a sales bom, and price it at header level or sub level.
If you want to assemble the products and depending upon the assemblies you want to price. For eg. if the customer asks for a certain combinationa of Material A, B and C respectively, then you create a Material Master record Material D with item category group as LUMF. While the Materials A, B and C are created with standared item category groups NORM only.
Then create a sales BOM using Tcode CS01 and enter the following details:
Material : Material D
Plant : Plant in which you created the material.
BOM Usage : 5 (Sales and Distribution)
then give the Materials A, B, and C and give their respective quantities.
Before you have to create pricing condition records for Materials A, B, and C.
Then configure the item categories ( T - code : VOV4).
When processing the sales order, just give the Material D and the system will pick up the corresponding assemblies for that material and populate in the order.
The item category for the header item will be TAP and the item cateory for the items will be TAN.
In this cas the Material D is called as the higher level Item , and all the assemblies are called as the sub items. Here the subitems are relevant for pricing and delivery where as the header item is not relevant for neither pricing nor delivery. It just acts as a text item.
This type of configaration of BOM is known as pricing at item level. This is used when you dont know what quantities of assemblies the customer is going to order and if the price of the assembly keeps varies.
There is another way of configaring BOM which is pricing at header level. The difference is that the Material Master D has to be confugured using the item category group ERLA.
Creation of BOM is same.
But you need to maintain the pricing condition record for the header item.
The item categories in this case would be
Header item : TAQ
Sub item TAE;
Where the header item is relevant for pricing and delivery. and subitems are not relevant for neither the pricing nor the delivery. Depending upon your requirement you configure accordingly.
-->Befor going to create sales BOM you need to create:
Master data for that Header Material and Components in the MM01 transaction.
-->If you want Header price you create Header Materil with ERLA Itemcategory group.
-->If you want pricing at item level you create header material with LUMF Itemcategory group.
-->To create Sales BOM go to the transaction CS01 there you give enter the data
Header Material which you have created in the MM01 transaction.
BOM Usage as '5' (Sales and Distribution)
***Then proceed with enter system will take you the BOM detail screen here you maintain the details of the components (How many components you need to make a Header material)
-->Check the item category determinetion settings in the transaction VOV4.
-->Maintain the Pricing procedure according to that.
-->Now you can create sales order with the BOM material
How to Know that Sales BOM is working or not?
I have set up a sales BOM. How do I know or test that is is working or not?
Once you enter a material (for whch you have created a BOM thru CS01) in the sales doc another material pops under the main material line item as a sub-item (s). If it doesn't then your BOM isn't working.
In my experience BOMs work if all maintenance has been done properly.
A number of things to check is:
1. The bom hasn't been defined for the plant used, or you haven't defined the plant in SO.
2. Main item category - has BOM application SD01 been assigned to it?
3. Item categories for main items and sub-items have not been mainteined properly.
4. Sales items maintenance - You should assign item categories for BOM header items and sub-items to a specific sales doc.
5. Has the BOM itself been configured properly (i.e. right plant, BOM usage '5')?
6. Are you trying it out on an order created after all BOM maintenance was done?
7. Also , what's the 'Structure scope' set as? Anything except C may be useful here? We have that set to A, since our BOMs are all single-level. You could set it to B if BOM are configured multi-level.
Those are probably main reasons why BOM shouldn't work. Apart from that, just re-check your whole config - the truth is out there somwhere.
訂單BOM: 是實際生產時用的BOM, 在標準BOM和銷售BOM基礎上增減物料的BOM
銷售BOM: 是為特定客戶設定的BOM, 在主檔數據層次上的BOM, 在生產時是帶到訂單BOM中去的.
標準BOM: 是公司為標準生產的BOM, 在主檔數據層次上的BOM, 在生產時是帶到訂單BOM中去的.
訂單BOM >= 銷售BOM >= 標準BOM
標準BOM是公司在標準生產中使用的BOM, 通常由工程設計BOM產出再進行修正, 在SAP的標準成本計算是需要用到的.
標準BOM維護: CS01/CS02/CS03, 查詢CS12
銷售BOM維護: CS61/CS62/CS63, 查詢CSK2
銷售BOM使用前提是產品必須是MAKE TO ORDER, 否則系統在展開BOM時只會拿標準BOM, 不會拿銷售BOM的數據.
訂單BOM的表: 沒有, 我的理解就是RESB中工單需求清單”
物料A超级BOM的顶层物料，A包含B,C; B 包含D，E； D包含G,F。现在SO里输入物料A，系统只能带出第一层物料B,C，孙层以下物料不能带出。CS03.MM02均察看， 包括SO VIEW和MRP VIEW，均无误。请高手指教问题可能出现在哪里？”
所有你想要在销售凭证中控制的BOM items都必须标记为‘relevant for sales’；
当使用BOM usage 5创建的BOM中的所有项目会自动标记为销售相关；
BOM以main and sub-items 的形式出现在销售凭证中，系统自动展开BOM为组件生成子项目；
在销售凭证中，Item Categorys控制BOM的行为，配置时，你为销售凭证中的BOM的main和sub-item定义和分配item category；
在main item的物料主记录中定义的item category group定义了哪种item category分配给了main item；
为了判定销售凭证中BOM要展开到什么程度，需要为main item定义item category结构的广度extent；
Order BOMs for Variant Configuration